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Collected and commented by BrahmAhUM
24 may 2013
Om Eros Psyche Hung!
EROS and PSYCHE and BALANCE 2
As said earlier, Eros and Psyche are animus and anima. For comparison, take this citation(1): "When Eros (a god) disappears as a result of Psyche (a mortal) looking at him, this is directly parallel to the way Melusina (a fairy) disappears when her husband (a mortal) looks at her." Psyche is a BUTTERFLY; Eros is soul, honey, monster or divine beauty. Concerning Eros and Psyche as animus and anima, they both symbolize the unconscious. The unconscious of man and woman is symbolized by figures of the opposite sex. In a commentary about a painting, "The Abduction of Psyche"(2), we read: "There is an overwhelming presence of the WIND...". And: "PURPLE is the color, which stands out most in the painting". "Another symbolic presence can be attributed to the 'butterfly". As purple is the THUNDER, it forms an archetypical pair with the WIND. With this, both, Eros and Psyche, are identified. WINGED EROS IS WOMAN'S PSYCHE, AND NAKED PSYCHE IS MAN'S EROS. The BUTTERFLY is multi interpretable. For example a symbol of soul, resurrection, rebirth, or, it could even be a symbol of sexual intercourse, alchemical conjunction, or metamorphosis. From an article about Bruno Bettelheim, the uses of enchantment, we take: "The myth is able to overcome the apparent opposition between wisdom and sexuality because it is itself a union of opposites as a story of bringing together the divine and the human". It's also interesting to read, elsewhere, that philosophy, in ancient Greek, was looked upon, by some, as being erotic or Eros. Isn't it true, that Eros is also painted without arrows? And what about this citation: "In the sanctuary of Asklepios at Epidauros, Argos, is a picture by Pausanias representing Eros, who has cast aside his bow and arrows, and is carrying instead of them a LYRE that he has taken up."(3) Overcome the apparent opposition, erotic philosophy, and a lyre, instead of bow and arrows. What does that look like? It looks like a CONVERSION. Read about ANTEROS, and it really starts to get interesting. This PLAYMATE OF EROS, LOOKS LIKE...PSYCHE. Citation: "In one of the wrestling-schools of Elis is a relief showing Eros (Love) and Anteros (Love Returned), as he is called. Eros holds a PALM-BRANCH, and Anteros is trying to take the palm from him"(4). Another one: "Men too live around the grove of the Mousai on Mt Helikon, Boiotia, and here the Thespians celebrate a festival, and also games called the Mouseia (Of the Muses). They celebrate other games in honour of Eros, offering prizes not only for MUSIC but also for ATHLETIC EVENTS"(5). The PALM-BRANCH symbolizes heaven, peace, fertility, long life, victory of the faithful over enemies of the soul, victory of spirit over the flesh.
WHAT IS LOVE?
Lets look at a citation from a philosophical site(6): "However, a problem for those who claim that love is reducible to the physical attractiveness of a potential mate, or to the blood ties of family and kin which forge bonds of filial love, is that it does not capture the affections between those who cannot or wish not to reproduce-that is, physicalism or determinism ignores the possibility of romantic, ideational love—it may explain eros, but not philia or agape". It also speaks of Plato's Symposium. In there some very interesting things are being said about love. Phaedrus says:..."The higher love is of the male, which may be a DIVINE INSPIRATION...". Eryximachus says:..."the best physician is he who is able to separate FAIR LOVE from foul, or to CONVERT one into the other"...
Sappho says: "Eros shook my heart like a WIND falling on oaks on a mountain". "Eros who had come from heaven clad in a PURPLE mantle". In these two citations we see the two aspects of Eros: the male wind(yellow) and the female thunder(purple), meaning: the spiritual part(Psyche) of Eros and the bodily(erotic) part.
This CONVERSION, what can be said about it? First we must realise that conversion is a very normal and basic phenomenon in the human psyche. But, this conversion of Eros to Psyche has a special reason. It's happening because of a ONE-SIDEDNESS. To much attention is going to the material, the bodily and the sexual. The living system, the unconscious, reacts by trying to compensate to one-sidedness. Now, a new situation emerges. Attention is going to the other side, to the spiritual, the religious and the philosophical. The first one-sidedness is making place for a second one-sidedness.
A dangerous situation! Dangerous, if the one-sidedness stays. The danger can only be lifted if we succeed in establishing BALANCE. To many people go from one extreme to another. Firstly, one is materialistic and body- and sex-orientated, then, all attention goes to religion, the spiritual or philosophy and one becomes anti-sexual, anti-body and, in the end, even anti-life. Not everyone of course. Let's stay conscious of the problem; if a one-sidedness occurs, see that as an alarm, something is wrong. Balance is better, but it's not only about balance. There's more, much more. We're talking about an important proces. A PROCES OF CHANGE. The one-sidedness and balance are both part of an even bigger proces. This movement is not static, but dynamical. It's continuing. If everything goes well it's progression. The bigger proces is transcendental. It leads to healing, "rebirth" and REGENERATION. It's creation. That should be the focus and purpose of a good philosophy and/or religion. The only thing that remains for this article is the question: "Is the Indian philosophy/religion the solution?". I'm not going to answer that question, I want to let this one open. I will only give some attention to Indian religion, especially HINDUISM, especially BHAKTI, especially ADVAITA VEDANTA.
NARADA BHAKTI SUTRAS: 25 "The supreme devotion (Bhakti) is indeed, as a technique even superior to the path of action (karma), the path of knowledge (gyana), and the path of disciplined contemplation (yoga)"(7).
AVADHOOTA GITA 2.17: "For the destruction of the terrible poisonous universe, which produces the unconsciousness of delusion, there is but one infallible remedy-the nectar of NATURALNESS(8). Unconsciousness, etc.-delusion which makes one unconscious of the Divine Reality. NATURALNESS-the state of pure Existence; Divine Identity".
ASHTAVAKRA GITA: "God cannot be realized by effort, it is not lost. Realize God by samarpana (bhakti) not by sanghasha or hard effort (Sadhana)". "Happiness belongs to noone but that supremely lazy man for whom even opening and closing his eyes is a bother". "The upright person does whatever presents itself to be done, good or bad, for his actions are like those of a child". "The calm mind of the sage is full of the nectar of immortality".
LAGHU YOGA VASISTHA: "Supreme bliss will flow from the renunciation of all attractions towards the much-longed for paltry objects. The mind which occupies an intermediate state between Brahman that ever is and the universe that is not, ever oscillates gravitating towards the one or the other. This mind becomes of the nature of Jnana through dint of the efforts towards spiritual direction; but becomes of the nature of the universe through Ajnana. Through its own efforts, the mind assumes the shape of any object it concentrates itself upon. Therefore you should, through your Atma-Jnana mind, avoid the mind which runs in the direction of objects; and progressing higher up, should, without any despondency of heart, accumulate wealth for that imperishable Supreme Seat. Like an emperor who brings under his sway all kings on earth, the fluctuating mind should be brought under the perfect control of the non-fluctuating mind and then the latter reaches its own state which is the Supreme one".
Nothing could express better what I wanted to say. It's a sublime piece from the Yoga Vasistha book. It describes the forementioned process of the conversion of Eros to Psyche, perfectly. Krishna, in the BHAGAVAD GITA (6.27), expresses it like this: "Supreme bliss verily comes to this Yogi whose mind is quite peaceful, whose passion is quieted, who has become Brahman, and who is free from sin". In this case, the conversion goes from one condition(Thunder) to the other(Wind) with a lessening of energy. If the "conversion" is of the same condition(e.g. Fire) and the condition worsens then it's an energy increase, for example vigor becomes agression, or carefulness(water) becomes anxiety. A lessening of energy would change agression in vigor, or for example mental excitement(Wind), becomes common sense, or bodily excitement becomes love. So this positive conversion of Eros to Psyche is a change of condition and energy.
Now, let's look at conversion in general in the moral model. Instead of one cardinal virtue for each trigram we use three fases of morality. It's like having a maximum, minimum and an average. Then the more differentiated model would be: 1.Heaven: total obedience, obedience, disobedience; 2.Fire: pure consciousness, vigor, agression; 3.Wind: Holy Spirit, common sense, senseless; 4.Lake: Bliss, friendliness, greedy; 5.Earth: receptive, feeding, materialistic;
6.Water: clear listening, carefulness, anxiety; 7.Thunder: pure love, erotic love, promiscuous; 8.Mountain: rest, steadfastly, obstinate. Now we will look at religion in general and consciousness. Through time we see a changing image of God. It's linked to consciousness. We have four states of consciousness. All this is conform the night-and-day, and conform the sun activity. Consciousness changes through day and night, and religion changes according to sun activity. So, religion, image of God, and morality, is a reflection of the state of consciousness. Religion and philosophy are mostly based on psychological- and physical phenomena, instead of betterment of humans, life and world, meaning morality. We even have religion that is openly hostile to humanity, life and world. Identification with the self(Atman, Braman, the Absolute) is onesided, dis-balance and pathological; and like that is not bad enough, it also can give you a big inflation, becoming a swollen frog. I'm not only a bodily human, and I'm not only pure consciousness; I'm both. Creator and creation are one.
THE NECTAR OF NATURALNESS
AVADHOOTA GITA 2.11: "Where there is such a NATURAL BEING, how can there be "I", how can there be even "you", how can there be the world?".
MAHANIRVANA TANTRA(9): "It will thus be seen that the "upward" or revealing movement from the predominance of tamas to that of sattva represents the spiritual progress of the JIVATMA."
"The NATURAL STATE of the jivatma – that is, the state of its own true nature – is that bliss (ananda) which arises from the pure knowledge of the Self, in which both happiness and sorrow are equally objects of indifference."
"He(the enlightened Kaula) knows that the Brahman is all, that the Supreme soul (paramatma) and the individual soul (jivatma) are one, and freed from all attachment he is jivanmukta, or liberated, whilst yet living."
CICERO: "From the enduring wonder of the Heavens flows ALL GRACE and power."
PETER 1 5:10 "But the God of ALL GRACE, who hath called us unto his eternal glory by Christ Jesus, after that ye have suffered a while, make you perfect, stablish, strengthen, settle you."
CO2 9:8 "And God is able to make ALL GRACE abound toward you."
From SARANAGATHI GADHYAM: BHAGAWAAN(God) Replies to RAMANUJA:
"With My GRACE and mercy, you will get rid of all hurdles; worries and troubles coming in the way to obtain para bhakti and para gnanam and parama bhakti; With my GRACE, you will be blessed with my swaroopam, gunam, roopam, perumai, leelas etc., and you will see them in person; you will be my servant and you will enjoy me only; you will realise that realising me and serving me only gives you happiness and bliss; For ever, permanently, with no other material benefit or desire, you will love to serve me; experiencing me and great love and bhakti, affection arising in you out of that rich experience will come to you by my GRACE; you will always perennially love to serve me and get blessed; you will be keen on that only; "
TRIPURA RAHASYA(10): "Find wherever you turn the one, undivided, eternal blissful Self; also watch the whole universe reflected, as in a mirror in the Self, as it arises and subsides in It. Stop contemplating "I see the Self everywhere and in everything (within and without)". Reach the residual Reality within and abide as the Self, with your own NATURAL STATE."
IEP(11) in "Ramanuja" we read : "The unity of both the father (Vishnu) and mother (Lakshmi) element in Brahman is essential to Ramanuja." That means the unity of Psyche and Eros. Brahman is Sat-Chit-Ananda, is Shiva-Vishnu-Krishna, coming from Brahma, God, Heaven. So Brahma is the Creator (Heaven), from that comes Brahman (Sat-Chit-Ananda), which is Shiva (Fire/Light), Vishnu (Wind/Common Sense) and Krishna (Lake/Bliss).
Vedanta, end of veda's and knowledge, is upanishad/Brahman-teaching based. Dvaita is dualist Vedanta school; Advaita is non-dual(monistic) Vedanta school, based on identification of soul and Braman; ADI SHANKARA belongs to this. The other major school is Vishishtadvaita, of which RAMANUJA is the main proponent. In vishishtadvaita Brahman does have infinite attributes. These different visions belong to different states of consciousness. Advaita is the highest state of consciousness, the awakened mind, in which we see everything as One. Ramanuja's vision belongs to the state of consciousness in which we believe in a personal God (Bhakti). Adi Sankara and Ramanuja (and others) are Gods vehicles; you can get in, get out, change; they ride you to your destination.
We find all this expressed in Bhagavad Gita, in the chapter 12, about devotional service.
Om Eros Psyche Hung!
p.s.: In Sri Vaishnavism Goddess Lakshmi acts as mediator between Vishnu and man; psychologically seen would that make Lakshmi the anima and Vishnu the self.
For conversion process, see also: Hua Hu Ching 60, 66.
(1) J. Schroeder: "Het Sprookje van Amor en Psyche in het licht der Psychoanalyse"
(2) William-Adolphe Bouguereau
(3) Pausanias, Description of Greece 2. 27. 3
(4) Pausanias, Description of Greece 6. 23. 5
(5) Pausanias, Description of Greece 9. 31. 3
(6) Alexander Moseley-Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
(7) translator unknown
(8) Sri Dattatreya
(9) Tantra of the Great Liberation
(10) Sri Dattatreya
(11) Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 3. Ramanuja’s Theism
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