Collected and commented by BrahmAhUM

Collected and commented by BrahmAhUM

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††THE EIGHT CARDINAL VIRTUES

Till now, we looked at Greek philosophy in general, but I'm more specifically interested in ethics or morality. I want to try to make a MORAL MODEL, based on the Ba Gua. What motivated, was the term, four CARDINAL VIRTUES. We can also look at the SENSES. We saw, that ethics is an important part of philosophy. There is the ethics of Aristotle, which we identified as an extravert EUDAIMONIA, and we looked at the ethics of Epictetus, which we identified as an introvert eudaimonia. This all sounds a little too technical, but never mind, the resulting model will be understandable. This is a first try; I also realise that placing only a few terms will not satisfy. So, maybe in this case we better try to use descriptions. As with all Ba Gua models, we'll have a yang part and a yin part, and those four yangs and yins form pairs. Also, those eight cardinal virtues will coincide with the eight senses. I tried to place the four cardinal virtues in the Ba Gua, to complete them. I did not succeed. I had to abandon that. Then I simply tried to translate the trigrams to moral virtues; that also seemed very difficult. I found the idea of a new ethic model to important to forget. I think the best thing we can do is to describe the virtues as good as possible, and matching them to the trigrams and the senses. Because I translate from Dutch, its practical to use DESCRIPTIONS instead of terms, so the reader can, if necessary, replace terms with better ones.

First "element" is HEAVEN, energy, bodypart is head; organ: brain; emotion is life force; sense is "head intuition", mental feeding, spirituality. Moral/virtue: Behaving according to Heaven, Tao or God; belief. Second is the element of FIRE: Bodypart: head; organ: eye,liver; emotion is vigor, and, in a negative sense, with to much energy, it would be agression. Sense: sight. Moral/virtue: vigor. Third is element WIND: bodypart is head; organ: nose, male reproductive system; emotion is mental excitement; sense is smell. Moral/virtue: common sense, intellect, wisdom, Psyche, philosophy. Fourth element is the LAKE: bodypart is tongue; organ is heart; emotion is joy; sense is taste; Moral/virtue: charity. Fifth element is EARTH, matter: bodypart is belly; organ is digestive system; emotion is openness; sense is gut feeling, body intuition. Moral/virtue: Behaving according to Earth, feeding. Sixth element is WATER: bodypart is head; organ is ear, kidney, bladder ; emotion is carefulness, in negative sense anxiety; sense is hearing; Moral/virtue: carefulness. Seventh element is THUNDER: bodypart is foot/hand; organ: female reproductive system; emotion is bodily excitement; sense is erogenous zone; Moral/virtue: love, Eros. Eighth element is the MOUNTAIN: bodypart is the back; organ: spinal cord; emotion is security, feeling secure; sense is touch; Moral/virtue: constancy.

Now I'll try to put it in a scheme:

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††NEW ETHICAL MODEL BASED ON THE BA GUA

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††Eight moral/cardinal virtues:

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††Heaven: belief

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††Fire: vigor

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††Wind: common sense

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††Lake: charity

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††Earth: feeding

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††Water: carefulness

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††Thunder: love

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††Mountain: constancy

After this, under great satisfaction, I was thinking about these cardinal virtues; then I thought about Saint Francis of Assisi (1). I was led to him in a most wonderful way. Years ago I had a dream about a beautiful sea or lake. It was a typical heavenly dream with a heavenly feeling. Since then I asked myself which sea or lake that could be and if it was a memory from a past life. Now, recently, I searched the term Tabula(of Tabula Smaragdina) to see if there are more Tabula's. That was the starting point in Wikipedia, and then I ended with Francis of Assisi, the chronology being: Tabula->Tabula Capuana->Liber Linteus->Lake Trasimeno->Isola Maggiore->Francis of Assisi. At this moment I'm still reading the "Little Flowers of St. Francis of Assisi(2)" of Brother Ugolino. The stories about Francis are most interesting; something very extraordinary happened in that time in that region, something of a very high caliber. So, I was thinking about that man and these cardinal virtues and said to myself: "Let's test this model on Francis and his monks." So thought, so done. I asked: "Did he and the others have the first virtue of Heaven?" Yes, of course, they believed wholeheartedly in God and the Son; "Did they have the second virtue of Fire?", Yes, they certainly had vigor; 'Did they have the third virtue of Wind?", Yes, from the stories we learn they had common sense; "Did they have the fourth virtue of the Lake?" There can not be any doubt they had charity; "Did they have the fifth virtue of the Earth?", As far as I understand they would feed you before themselves; "Did they have the sixth virtue of Water?", I think they were all very careful. "Did they have the seventh virtue of Thunder?", There love is the Love of God. "Did they have the eighth virtue of the Mountain?", They certainly had the constancy of a mountain. So, there you have it; They had all eight moral virtues. Let that be an example of how a real human being should be. Now, I don't think that you can GET these cardinal virtues, I think these moral virtues are PART OF all human beings; it's how God created you. You have these eight moral virtues inside of you. So, I think God created us with these eight moral virtues inside of us. Realise that this Ba Gua comes from the unconscious of a human being, like you and me. It's part of us. It's our genetic makeup.

Now, you and I know, that sometimes these virtues can be like, obscured. Lets call it unconscious. Then sometimes, when there is to much energy, things can become harmful. So, this is all a matter of BALANCE, isn't it? And of HARMONY. Another term I want to add is DIFFERENTIATION. Now we combine: It's a matter of DIFFERENTIATION AND BALANCE.

I just read about the THREE TREASURES of TaoÔsm in Wikipedia; I already wrote about the THREE JEWELS of Buddhism, being actually FOUR. To cut it short, three or four treasures or jewels is actually EIGHT; unconscious female part or ANIMA is missing with the jewels and EROS(!) is missing with the three treasures. So, the total eight, and you possibly aspected it already, can only be the above mentioned EIGHT CARDINAL VIRTUES. In case you don't get it: three Buddhist jewels is Buddha(Heaven), Dharma(Fire), Sangha(Wind); add Ananda(Lake); add all four female(Earth, Water, Thunder, Mountain). Three TaoÔst treasures is three female: Earth, Water, Mountain; add Eros(Thunder), add four male(Heaven, Fire, Wind, Lake).

(1) Francesco d'Assisi, Giovanni di Bernardone

(2) Fioretti di Santo Francesco díAscesi


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